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Ultimately, the failure of Austro-Hungarian ambitions to nurture a Bosniak identity amongst the Catholic and Orthodox led to almost exclusively Bosnian Muslims adhering to it, with 'Bosniakhood' consequently adopted as a Bosnian Muslim ethnic ideology by nationalist figures.[143] The journal "Bošnjak" ("Bosniak") founded in 1891 by Mehmed-beg Kapetanović Ljubušak declared that Bosniaks (in the sense of all Bosnians) were neither Croats nor Serbs but a distinct, though related people. At first, this Islamisation was more or less nominal. This Bosniak group would remain active for several decades, with the continuity of ideas and the use of the Bosniak name. The war also caused many drastic demographic changes in Bosnia. Politically, Bosnia and Herzegovina was split into four banovinas with Muslims being the minority in each.[158] After the Cvetković-Maček Agreement 13 counties of Bosnia and Herzegovina were incorporated into the Banovina of Croatia and 38 counties into the projected Serbian portion of Yugoslavia.[158] In calculating the division, the Muslims were discounted altogether[158] which prompted the Bosniaks into creating the Movement for the Autonomy of Bosnia-Herzegovina.[159] Moreover, land reforms proclaimed in the February 1919 affected 66.9 per cent of the land in Bosnia and Herzegovina. National heroes are typically historical figures, whose lives and skills in battle are emphasized. The Orthodox Christian population (534,000 in 1870) decreased by 7 percent while Muslims decreased by a third.[136] The Austrian census in 1879 recorded altogether 449,000 Muslims, 496,485 Orthodox Christians and 209,391 Catholics in Bosnia and Herzegovina. As a result, Bosniak revolts sprang up in Herzegovina in 1727, 1728, 1729, and 1732. Given names or first names among Bosniaks have mostly Arabic, or Turkish, roots such as Osman, Mehmed, Muhamed, Alija, Ismet, Kemal, Hasan, Ibrahim, Mustafa, Ahmed, Husein, Hamza, Haris, Halid, Refik, Tarik, Faruk, Abdulah, Amer, Sulejman, Mahir, Enver, and many others. In Bosnian, simply taking away the letter "a" changes the traditionally feminine "Jasmina" into the popular male name "Jasmin". After the occupation of Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1878, the Austrian administration of Benjamin Kallay, the Austro-Hungarian governor of Bosnia and Herzegovina, officially endorsed "Bosniakhood" as the basis of a multi-confessional Bosnian nation that would include Christians as well as Muslims. In the 1340s, creative writing story british council Franciscan missions were launched against alleged "heresy" in Bosnia; prior to this, there had been no Catholics – or at least no Catholic clergy or organization – in Bosnia proper for nearly a century.

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The Bosnian Muslims (Bosniaks) are traditionally[194][195][196] and predominantly Sunni Muslim.[197] Historically Sufism has also played a significant role among the Bosnian Muslims who tended to favor more mainstream Sunni orders such as the Naqshbandiyya, Rifa'i and Qadiriyya. Thousands of Muslims from these parts fled eastward into the Bosnian pashaluk, while those who remained were forcibly converted to Catholicism. Actually the speaker had been half-hoping that the tapping he heard at his window might be the ghost of Lenore, which is why the only word spoken when he looked out the window "was the whispered word, "Lenore?" The name is followed by a question mark to show that the poet is wondering if he is being visited by his dead paramour. According to some sources, the Bosnian coat of arms, with six golden lilies, originated from the French descended Capetian House of Anjou.[211] The member of this dynasty, Louis I of Hungary, was married to Elizabeth of Bosnia, daughter of the ban Stephen II of Bosnia, with Tvrtko I consequently embracing the heraldic lily as a symbol of the Bosnian royalty in token of the familial relations between the Angevins and the Bosnian royal family. Well known are "gorske vile", or fairies from the mountains which dance on very green meadows. The earliest attestation to a Bosnian ethnonym emerged with the historical term "Bošnjanin" (Latin: Bosniensis) which denoted the people of the medieval Bosnian kingdom.[27] By the 15th century,[23] the suffix -(n)in had been replaced by -ak to create the current form Bošnjak (Bosniak), first attested in the diplomacy of Bosnian king Tvrtko II who in 1440 dispatched a delegation (Apparatu virisque insignis) to the Polish king of Hungary, Władysław Warneńczyk (1440–1444), asserting a common Slavic ancestry and language between the Bosniak and Pole.[28][29][30] The Miroslav Krleža Lexicographical Institute thus defines Bosniak as "the name for the subjects of the Bosnian rulers in the pre-Ottoman era, subjects of the Sultans during the Ottoman era, and the current name for the most numerous of the three constituent peoples in Bosnia and Herzegovina. However, in the late 1710s yet another war between the Ottomans and the Habsburg-Venetian alliance ensued. This is the speaker's way of saying that he will simply refuse to think about the subject of death. However, such people comprise a minority (even in countries such as Montenegro where it is a significant political issue) while the great majority of Slavic Muslims in the former Yugoslavia have adopted the Bosniak national name. His position and doctrine was that all Bosnians are one people of three faiths, and that up to the late 19th century, no Croats and Serbs lived in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

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A large number of Muslims left Bosnia and Herzegovina following the Austrian occupation; official Austro-Hungarian records show that 56,000 people, mostly Muslims, emigrated between 1883 and 1920, but the number of Muslim emigrants is probably much greater, as the official record does not reflect emigration before 1883, nor include those who left without permits. With respect to lexicon, Bosnian is characterized by its larger number of Ottoman Turkish (as well as Arabic and Persian) loanwords (called Orientalisms) in relation to the other Serbo-Croatian varieties. In 1736, seeking to exploit these conditions, The Habsburgs broke the Treaty of Passarowitz and crossed the Sava river boundary. And the Raven tells him "Nevermore," meaning that death is nothing but eternal oblivion without any hope. Fairies are often mentioned in Bosniak epics, poetry and folk songs. In 1697, creative writing weekend Habsburg Prince Eugene of Savoy conducted an extremely successful border raid which culminated in Sarajevo being put to the torch. In 1463, after a dispute over the tribute paid annually by the Bosnian Kingdom to the Ottomans, he sent for help from the Venetians. Who died with an arrow in his eye? What happened at the Battle of Hastings? The Bosnian fleur-de-lis also appears on the flags and arms of many cantons, municipalities, cities and towns.

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The gusle, an instrument found throughout the Balkans, is also used to accompany ancient South Slavic epic poems. These events created great unrest among Bosniaks. At its very start in the mid-1680s, the Habsburgs retook nearly all of Ottoman Hungary, sending tens of thousands of Muslim refugees flooding into the Bosnian region. Sevdalinkas are unique to Bosnia and Herzegovina. The modern Bosnian language principally uses the Latin alphabet. Sevdalinkas were traditionally performed with a saz, a Turkish string instrument, which was later replaced by the accordion. After Kallay's death in 1903, the official policy slowly drifted towards accepting the three-ethnic reality of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Rural folk traditions in Bosnia include the shouted, polyphonic ganga and ravne pjesme (flat song) styles, as well as instruments like a wooden flute and šargija. Some may point to an Islamic heritage, while others stress the purely secular and national character of the Bosniak identity and its connection with Bosnian territory and history.[49] Moreover, individuals outside Bosnia and Herzegovina may hold their own personal interpretations as well. There are also some surnames which are presumed to be of pre-Slavic origin. It was ended by the Treaty of Passarowitz in 1718, but not before sending another wave of Muslim refugees fleeing to Bosnia proper.

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Kjell Magnusson points out that religion played a major role in the processes that shaped the national movements and the formation of the new states in the Balkans after the Ottoman retreat, since the Ottomans distinguished peoples after their religious affiliations.[206] Although religion only plays a minor role in the daily lives of the ethnic groups of Bosnia and Herzegovina today, the following stereotypes are still rather current, namely, that the Serbs are Orthodox, the Croats Catholic and the Bosniaks Muslim; those native Bosnians who remained Christian and did not convert to Islam over time came to identify as ethnic Serb or Croat, helping to explain the apparent ethnic mix in Bosnia-Herzegovina. O Divine Father! --shall these things be undeviatingly so? Examples of such surnames include Zlatar ("goldsmith") Kovač ("blacksmith") or Kolar ("wheelwright"). On the request of the Hungarians, Bosnia was subordinated to a Hungarian archbishop by the pope, though rejected by the Bosnians, the Hungarian-appointed bishop was driven out of Bosnia. Another 40,000 Bosniaks are found in Croatia and 38,000 in Slovenia. Bosnia (Βοσωνα/Bosona) as a "small/little land" (or "small country",[82] χοριον Βοσωνα/horion Bosona) part of Serbia,[82] having been settled by Serbs along with Zahumlje and Travunija (both with territory in modern-day Bosnia and Herzegovina);[73] it was referred to only once, at the end of the 32nd chapter on the Serbs (a chapter overall drawn from older writings).[82] This is the first mention of a Bosnian entity; it was not a national entity, but a geographical one, mentioned strictly as an integral part of Serbia.[82] Some scholars assert that the inclusion of Bosnia in Serbia merely reflect the status in DAI's time.[83] In the Early Middle Ages, Fine, Jr. As a result, many Bosnians were appointed to serve as beylerbeys, sanjak-beys, mullahs, qadis, pashas, muftis, janissary commanders, writers, and so forth in Istanbul, Jerusalem and Medina. But the Raven still beguiling all my sad soul into smiling... The Bosnian state was significantly strengthened under the rule (ca. Bosnensis), prvotno je ime koje označuje pripadništvo srednjovjekovnoj bosanskoj državi.